GENDER IN LANGUAGE PROJECT


SPANISH LOANWORDS IN TAGALOG


by CARMELA BLAZADO

This resource attempts to list all Spanish loanwords in Tagalog that have masculine-feminine gender distinctions. It does not list loanwords that do not show masculine-feminine gender distinctions, like those ending in -e (e.g. estudyante 'student') or -ista (e.g. artista 'artist'). A large part of Tagalog's gendered content exists due to the influence of Spanish colonialism, which formally lasted from 1565 until 1898. During this time, hundreds of Spanish loanwords were borrowed into Tagalog, many of them with canonical (e.g. amerikano/amerikana 'American') or noncanonical (e.g. abyadór/abyadóra 'aviator') Spanish inflectional gender morphology. Others were lexical gender items in Spanish (pairs which do not differ maximally by gender morpheme, but by some other feature) which subsequently became lexical gender items in Tagalog (e.g. aktór 'actor'/aktrís 'actress'). The first 17 sections of this resource list Spanish loanwords with inflectional gender morphology alphabetically. The final section lists lexical gender items in Tagalog derived from Spanish.


MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDSA



MASCULINE



FEMININE

abandonado

'abandoned'

abarisyoso

'greedy'

abenturero

'adventurer'

abenturero, abenturoso

'adventurous'

abnegado

'selfless'

abogado, abugado

'lawyer'

abonado, abunado

'subscriber'

abusado

'abused'

abusero

'abuser'

abyadór

'aviator'

abyerto

'open'

adiposo

'adipose'

adúlteró

'adulterer, adulterous'

aéreó

'aerial'

agnóstikó

'agnostic'

agraryo

'agricultural'

agrasyado

'charming'

agustino

'Augustinian'

akadémykó

'academic'

albino

'albino'

alehandrino

'from Alexandria'

alemán, ulimán

'German'

alemánikó

'Germanic'

alternatibo

'alternative'

alerto

'alert'

alhebraiko

'algebraic'

alkalino

'alkaline'

alternatibo

'alternative'

alumno

'student'

ambisyoso

'ambitious'

amerikano, kanô

'American'

amigo

'friend'

amoroso

'loving'

andino

'Andean'

anémikó

'anemic'

anghelito

'little angel'

anglómanó

'Anglomaniac'

anónimó

'anonymous'

antátrikó

'Antarctic'

antilyano

'Antillean'

antipátikó

'mean, disagreeable'

apgano

'Afghan'

apirmatibo

'afirmative'

arhentino

'Argentine'

aristokrátikó

'aristocratic'

armadór

'shipowner'

armenyo

'Armenian'

ártikó

'arctic'

asado

'roasted'

atomikó

'atomic'

atraktibo

'attractive'

australiano, australyano

'Australian'

austriako

'Austrian'

abandonada

'abandoned'

abarisyosa

'greedy'

abenturera

'adventurer'

abenturera, abenturosa

'adventurous'

abnegada

'selfless'

abogada, abugada

'lawyer'

abonada, abunada

'subscriber'

abusada

'abused'

abusera

'abuser'

abyadóra

'aviator'

abyerta

'open'

adiposa

'adipose'

adúlterá

'adulterer, adulterous'

aéreá

'aerial'

agnóstiká

'agnostic'

agrarya

'agricultural'

agrasyada

'charming'

agustina

'Augustinian'

akadémyká

'academic'

albina

'albino'

alehandrina

'from Alexandria'

alemána

'German'

alemániká

'Germanic'

alternatiba

'alternative'

alerta

'alert'

alhebraika

'algebraic'

alkalina

'alkaline'

alternatiba

'alternative'

alumna

'student'

ambisyosa

'ambitious'

amerikana

'American'

amiga

'friend'

amorosa

'loving'

andina

'Andean'

anémiká

'anemic'

anghelita

'little angel'

anglómaná

'Anglomaniac'

anónimá

'anonymous'

antátriká

'Antarctic'

antilyana

'Antillean'

antipátiká

'mean, disagreeable'

apgana

'Afghan'

apirmatiba

'afirmative'

arhentina

'Argentine'

aristokrátiká

'aristocratic'

armadóra

'shipowner'

armenya

'Armenian'

ártiká

'arctic'

asada

'roasted'

atomiká

'atomic'

atraktiba

'attractive'

australiana, australyana

'Australian'

austriaka

'Austrian'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—B



MASCULINE



FEMININE

babilónikó

'Babylonian'

bailarín, baylarín

'dancer'

balensyano, valenciano

'Valencian'

bandolero

'bandit'

banidoso

'vain'

bárbaro

'barbarian'

beato

'sanctimonious'

bedwino

'Bedouin'

benediktino

'Benedictine'

benepisyaryo, benepisaryo

'beneficiary'

benesyano

'Venetian'

berlinés

'from Berlin'

bibliógrapó

'bibliographer'

bibliyotekaryo

'librarian'

bilyako, belyako

'wicked'

birtuoso, birtuwoso

'virtuous'

bisiro

'bull calf'

bisyoso

'vicious'

biyahero

'traveler'

biyudo

'widow'

bobo, bubo

'idiot'

boluntaryo, buluntaryo

'volunteer'

botánikó

'botanical'

botikaryo, butikaryo

'pharmacist'

brasileyno

'Brazilian'

británikó

'British'

bruho, buruho

'wizard'

búlgaró

'Bulgarian'

bulkánikó

'volcanic'

burdadór

'embroiderer'

babilóniká

'Babylonian'

bailarína, baylarína

'dancer'

balensyana, valenciana

'Valencian'

bandolera

'bandit'

banidosa

'vain'

bárbara

'barbarian'

beata

'sanctimonious'

bedwina

'Bedouin'

benediktina

'Benedictine'

benepisyarya

'beneficiary'

benesyana

'Venetian'

berlinésa

'from Berlin'

bibliógrapá

'bibliographer'

bibliyotekarya

'librarian'

bilyaka, belyaka

'wicked'

birtuosa, birtuwosa

'virtuous'

bisira

'bull calf'

bisyosa

'vicious'

biyahera

'traveler'

biyuda

'widow'

boba

'idiot'

boluntarya, buluntarya

'volunteer'

botániká

'botanical'

botikarya, butikarya

'pharmacist'

brasileyna

'Brazilian'

britániká

'British'

bruha, buruha

'witch'

búlgará

'Bulgarian'

bulkániká

'volcanic'

burdadora, burdadera

'embroiderer'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—D



MASCULINE



FEMININE

daltonyano

'color blind'

danés

'Danish'

dansarín

'dancer'

danubyano

'Danubian'

dekano

'dean'

delikado, dilikado

'delicate'

demostino

'Demosthenian'

desesperado

'desperate'

desidido

'decided'

deskarado

'shameless'

despatsadór, dispatsadór

'fast'

desposado

'newlywed'

diborsiyado

'divorced'

dinamarkés

'from Denmark'

diplomátikó

'diplomatic'

direkto

'direct'

direktór

'director'

disgrasyado

'wretched'

disípuló

'disciple'

doktór

'doctor'

doméstikó

'domestic'

dormitoryano

'resident of dormitory'

dramátikó

'dramatic'

dudoso

'suspicious'

daltonyana

'color blind'

danésa

'Danish'

dansarina

'dancer'

danubyana

'Danubian'

dekana

'dean'

delikada

'delicate'

demostina

'Demosthenian'

desesperada

'desperate'

desidida

'decided'

deskarada

'shameless'

despatsadóra, dispatsadóra

'fast'

desposada

'newlywed'

diborsiyada

'divorced'

dinamarkésa

'from Denmark'

diplomátiká

'diplomatic'

direkta

'direct'

direktóra

'director'

disgrasyada

'wretched'

disípulá

'disciple'

doktóra

'doctor'

doméstiká

'domestic'

dormitoryana

'resident of dormitory'

dramátiká

'dramatic'

dudosa

'suspicious'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—E



MASCULINE



FEMININE

edukado

'educated'

ehipsyo, ehípsiyó

'Egyptian'

eksterno, esterno

'external'

elektibo

'elective'

embahadór

'ambassador'

empermero

'nurse'

empleado, empleyado

'employee'

enamorado

'in love'

enemigo

'enemy'

engkantado, ingkantado

'enchanted'

enkarnadino

'blood red'

enkarnado

'red, flesh colored'

ensíklikó

'circular'

entremetido

'meddlesome'

eredero

'heir'

eskandaloso, iskandaloso

'scandalous'

eskosés

'Scottish'

eskotado, iskutado

'low-cut'

eslobako

'Slovakian'

espanyol

'Spanish'

estétikó

'aesthetic'

estranghero

'foreign, foreigner'

estrikto, istrikto

'strict'

eurupeo

'European'

edukada

'educated'

ehipsya, ehípsiyá

'Egyptian'

eksterna, esterna

'external'

elektiba

'elective'

embahadóra

'ambassador'

empermera

'nurse'

empleada

'employee'

enamorada

'in love'

enemiga

'enemy'

engkantada, ingkantada

'enchanted'

enkarnadina

'blood red'

enkarnada

'red, flesh colored'

ensíkliká

'circular'

entremetida

'meddlesome'

eredera

'heir'

eskandalosa, iskandalosa

'scandalous'

eskosesa

'Scottish'

eskotada, iskutada

'low-cut'

eslobaka

'Slovakian'

espanyola

'Spanish'

estétiká

'aesthetic'

estranghera

'foreign, foreigner'

estrikta, istrikta

'strict'

eurupea

'European'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—G



MASCULINE



FEMININE

gago

'stuttering'

galés

'Welsh'

gastador

'big spender'

gástrikó

'gastric'

gautso

'cowboy'

grasyoso

'funny'

griego, griyego

'Greek'

guwapo

'good-looking'

gaga

'stuttering'

galésa

'Welsh'

gastadora

'big spender'

gástriká

'gastric'

gautsa

'cowboy'

grasyosa

'funny'

griega, griyega

'Greek'

guwapa

'good-looking'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—H



MASCULINE



FEMININE

habanés

'Javanese'

hako

'old horse'

hakobino

'Jacobin'

hayitano

'Haitian'

heneratibo

'generative'

henobés

'Genoese'

heolóhikó

'geological'

hibraltarenyo

'from Gibraltar'

higantón

'giant'

hispánikó

'Hispanic'

hitano

'gypsy'

humento

'donkey'

huwisyoso

'sensible'

habanesa

'Javanese'

haka

'old horse'

hakobina

'Jacobin'

hayitana

'Haitian'

heneratiba

'generative'

henobésa

'Genoese'

heolóhiká

'geological'

hibraltarenya

'from Gibraltar'

higantóna

'giant'

hispániká

'Hispanic'

hitana

'gypsy'

humenta

'donkey'

huwisyosa

'sensible'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—I



MASCULINE



FEMININE

ihado

'godson'

iho

'son'

ilustrado

'illustrated'

indonesyo

'Indonesian'

ingkantador

'charming'

ingkorporado

'incorporated'

ingkilino

'tenant'

ingrato

'ungrateful'

ionospérikó

'iconospheric'

irlandés

'Irish'

iskrupuloso

'scrupulous'

isponghado

'spongy'

istérikó

'hysterical'

istúpido

'stupid'

italyano

'Italian'

ihada

'goddaughter'

iha

'daughter'

ilustrada

'illustrated'

indonesya

'Indonesian'

ingkantadora

'charming'

ingkorporada

'incorporated'

ingkilina

'tenant'

ingrata

'ungrateful'

ionospériká

'iconospheric'

irlandésa

'Irish'

iskrupulosa

'scrupulous'

isponghada

'spongy'

istériká

'hysterical'

istúpida

'stupid'

italyana

'Italian'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—K



MASCULINE



FEMININE

kahero

'cashier'

kalyehero

'from/of the street'

kamarero

'waiter'

kamelyo

'camel'

kampesino

'peasant'

kandidato

'candidate'

kanonisado

'canonized'

kantado

'predictable'

kantinero

'bartender'

kapitán

'capitan'

kapritsoso

'capricious'

karinyoso

'loving'

kasero

'homebody, homemade'

kásto

'chaste'

katólikó

'Catholic'

kaukáseó

'Caucasian'

kebrado

'bankrupt'

kerelyadór

'plaintiff'

kerido

'dear'

kímikó

'chemical'

klásikó

'classical'

kleptómanó

'kleptomaniac'

koeredero

'coheir'

kolombiano

'Colombian'

komprometido

'engaged'

kompyado

'confident'

kondensado

'condensed'

konduktór, kunduktór

'driver'

kontemplatibo

'contemplative'

kosako

'Cossack'

krusado

'crossbred'

kulado

'gate crasher, smitten'

kuryoso

'curious'

kusinero

'cook'

kutsino

'filthy'

kuwakero

'Quaker'

kahera

'cashier'

kalyehera

'from/of the street'

kamarera

'waitress'

kamelya

'camel'

kampesina

'peasant'

kandidata

'candidate'

kanonisada

'canonized'

kantada

'predictable'

kantinera

'bartender'

kapitana

'capitan'

kapritsosa

'capricious'

karinyosa

'loving'

kasera

'homebody, homemade'

kásta

'chaste'

katóliká

'Catholic'

kaukáseá

'Caucasian'

kebrada

'bankrupt'

kerelyadóra

'plaintiff'

kerida

'dear'

kímiká

'chemical'

klásiká

'classical'

kleptómaná

'kleptomaniac'

koeredera

'coheiress'

kolombiana

'Colombian'

komprometida

'engaged'

kompyada

'confident'

kondensada

'condensed'

konduktóra, kunduktóra

'driver'

kontemplatiba

'contemplative'

kosaka

'Cossack'

krusada

'crossbred'

kulada

'gate crasher, smitten'

kuryosa

'curious'

kusinera

'cook'

kutsina

'filthy'

kuwakera

'Quaker'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—L



MASCULINE



FEMININE

labandero

'person who does laundry'

lehiyonario

'legionnaire, legionary'

león, liyón

'lion'

lepidóptero

'lepidopterous'

listó, alistó

'ready, bright'

litúrhikó

'liturgical'

loko, luko

'crazy'

lolo, lelong

'grandfather'

lunátikó

'lunatic'

labandera

'person who does laundry'

lehiyonaria

'legionnaire, legionary'

leona

'lion'

lepidóptera

'lepidopterous'

listá

'ready, bright'

litúrhiká

'liturgical'

loka

'crazy'

lola, lelang

'grandmother'

lunátiká

'lunatic'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—M



MASCULINE



FEMININE

masedonyo

'Macedonian'

madrilenyo

'from Madrid'

maestro, mestro

'teacher, master'

malisyoso

'malicious'

manilenyo

'from Manila'

mariano

'Marian'

markés

'marquis'

matón

'thug'

mekanógrapó

'typist'

mediteráneo

'Mediterranean'

megalómanó

'megalomaniac'

mehikano

'Mexican'

mestizo, mistiso

'mestizo'

milagroso

'miraculous'

milyunaryo

'millionaire'

mimoso

'affectionate'

misteryoso

'mysterious'

místikó

'mystic, mystical'

moderno

'modern'

monghe

'monk'

moreno

'dark-skinned'

moro

'Moor'

mutsatso

'servant'

mutsátso

'young boy'

masedonya

'Macedonian'

madrilenya

'from Madrid'

maestra, mestra

'teacher, master'

malisyosa

'malicious'

manilenya

'from Manila'

mariana

'Marian'

markésa

'marquess'

matona

'thug'

mekanógrapá

'typist'

mediteránea

'Mediterranean'

megalómaná

'megalomaniac'

mehikana

'Mexican'

mestiza, mistisa

'mestizo'

milagrosa

'miraculous'

milyunarya

'millionaire'

mimosa

'affectionate'

misteryosa

'mysterious'

místiká

'mystic, mystical'

moderna

'modern'

mongha

'nun'

morena

'dark-skinned'

mora

'Moor'

mutsatsa

'servant'

mutsátsa

'young girl'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—N



MASCULINE



FEMININE

napolitano

'from Naples'

nesesitado

'needy'

negatibo

'negative'

negrito

'Black person'

negro

'Black person'

nené

'kid'

nerbiyoso

'nervous'

neumátikó

'pneumatic'

neurótikó

'neurotic'

nínyo

'boy'

nobisyo

'novice'

nóbyo

'boyfriend'

napolitana

'from Naples'

nesesitada

'needy'

negatiba

'negative'

negrita

'Black person'

negra

'Black person'

nená

'kid'

nerbiyosa

'nervous'

neumátiká

'pneumatic'

neurótiká

'neurotic'

nínya

'girl'

nobisya

'novice'

nóbya

'girlfriend'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—O



MASCULINE



FEMININE

osyoso, usyoso

'idle'

oktabo

'eighth'

okupado, ukupado

'busy'

operaryo

'worker'

ordenado

'ordered'

orgulyoso

'proud'

oso

'bear'

ospisyano

'child who lives in an orphanage'

osyosa

'idle'

oktaba

'eighth'

okupada, ukupada

'busy'

operarya

'worker'

ordenada

'ordered'

orgulyosa

'proud'

osa

'bear'

ospisyana

'child who lives in an orphanage'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—P



MASCULINE



FEMININE

paborito

'favorite'

palestyno

'Palestinian'

panátikó

'fanatic, fanatical'

paraguayo

'Paraguayan'

parmaseútikó, parmasyútikó

'pharmacist, pharmaceutical'

pasibo

'passive'

patron

'guardian'

penikado

'carbolic'

peynadór

'hairdresser'

pensiyonado

'pensioner'

persiyano

'Persian'

píkaró

'cunning'

pilipino, filipino

'Filipino'

pilyo

'scoundrel, thief'

pinlandés

'Finnish'

pitwitaryo

'pituitary'

piyadór

'guarantor'

polynesyo

'Polynesian'

politéknikó

'polytechnic'

póstumo

'posthumous'

prangko

'frank'

premyadór

'awarder'

preparatoryo

'preparatory'

primer, primero

'first'

primo

'cousin'

priór

'prior'

pribado

'private'

pribilehiyado

'privileged'

propeso

'professed'

propesór

'professor'

propyetaryo

'owner'

probinsiyano

'provincial'

pugoso

'ardent'

paborita

'favorite'

palestyna

'Palestinian'

panátiká

'fanatic, fanatical'

paraguaya

'Paraguayan'

parmaseútiká, parmasyútiká

'pharmacist, pharmaceutical'

pasiba

'passive'

patrona

'guardian'

penikada

'carbolic'

peynadora, peinadora

'hairdresser'

pensiyonada

'pensioner'

persiyana

'Persian'

píkará

'cunning'

pilipina, filipina

'Filipina'

pilya

'scoundrel, thief'

pinlandésa

'Finnish'

pitwitarya

'pituitary'

piyadora

'guarantor'

polynesya

'Polynesian'

politékniká

'polytechnic'

póstuma

'posthumous'

prangka

'frank'

premyadóra

'awarder'

preparatorya

'preparatory'

primera

'first'

prima

'cousin'

prióra

'prioress'

pribada

'private'

pribilehiyada

'privileged'

propesa

'professed'

propesóra

'professor'

propyetarya

'owner'

probinsiyana

'provincial'

pugosa

'ardent'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—R



MASCULINE



FEMININE

repormado

'reformist, reformed'

relatibo

'related, relative'

relihiyoso

'religious'

reparado

'repaired'

romano

'Roman'

romántikó

'romantic'

rubyo

'blonde'

ruso

'Russian'

repormada

'reformist, reformed'

relatiba

'related, relative'

relihiyosa

'religious'

reparada

'repaired'

romana

'Roman'

romántiká

'romantic'

rubya

'blonde'

rusa

'Russian'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—S



MASCULINE



FEMININE

sabyo

'wise'

sagrado

'sacred'

santísimó

'saintly'

santo, santó

'holy, saintly'

sátiró

'satyr'

satsatero

'chattering'

sekretaryo, sektaryo

'secretary'

seloso

'jealous'

segundo, sigundo

'second'

senyór, sinyór

'sir'

síbikó

'civic'

sinyorito, sinyurito

'young gentleman'

serbidór

'servant'

seksto, sesto

'sixth'

sigarero

'cigar seller'

sirkero

'ridiculous'

sisilyano

'Sicilian'

simpátikó

'nice, kind'

sirbiyente

'servant'

sobrino

'nephew'

soltero

'single, unmarried'

soró

'fox'

subornado

'bribed'

suplado

'sneaky'

sabya

'wise'

sagrada

'sacred'

santísimá

'saintly'

santa, santá

'holy, saintly'

sátirá

'satyr'

satsatera

'chattering'

sekretarya, sektarya

'secretary'

selosa

'jealous'

segunda, sigunda

'second'

senyora, sinyora

'madam'

síbiká

'civic'

sinyorita, sinyurita

'young woman'

serbidóra

'servant'

seksta, sesta

'sixth'

sigarera

'cigar seller'

sirkera

'ridiculous'

sisilyana

'Sicilian'

simpátiká

'nice, kind'

sirbiyenta

'servant'

sobrina

'niece'

soltera

'single, unmarried'

sorá

'fox'

subornada

'bribed'

suplada

'sneaky'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—T



MASCULINE



FEMININE

talyado

'cut, carved'

takígrapó

'stenographer'

takilyero

'box-office clerk'

tehano

'Texan'

telegrápikó

'telegraphic'

tindero

'shopkeeper'

tercero

'third'

tesorero

'treasurer'

testadór

'testator'

tibetano

'Tibetan'

tiyó

'uncle'

tísikó

'tubercular'

tokayo, tukayo, katukayo

'namesake, someone with same name'

tonto

'dumb'

tostado, tustado

'toasted, tanned'

traidór

'traitor'

tsato

'flat'

tsismoso

'gossipy'

tsongo

'old horse'

tsongo

'monkey'

turko

'Turk, Turkish'

tutór

'mentor'

talyada

'cut, carved'

takígrapá

'stenographer'

takilyera

'box-office clerk'

tehana

'Texan'

telegrápiká

'telegraphic'

tindera

'shopkeeper'

tercera

'third'

tesorera

'treasurer'

testadóra

'testator'

tibetana

'Tibetan'

tiyá, tía

'aunt'

tísiká

'tubercular'

tokaya, tukaya, katukaya

'namesake, someone with same name'

tonta

'dumb'

tostada, tustada

'toasted, tanned'

traidóra

'traitor'

tsata

'flat'

tsismosa

'gossipy'

tsonga

'old horse'

tsonga

'monkey'

turka

'Turk, Turkish'

tutóra

'mentor'



MORPHOLOGICAL GENDER LOANWORDS—U



MASCULINE



FEMININE

ulandés

'Dutch'

últimó

'last'

unggaró

'Hungarian'

usurero

'money-lender'

ulandésa

'Dutch'

últimá

'last'

unggará

'Hungarian'

usurera

'money-lender'



LEXICAL GENDER LOANWORDS



MASCULINE



FEMININE

These noun pairs form masculine-feminine distinctions in a manner distinct from those with morphological gender, i.e. they do not differ maximally by gender morpheme (e.g. -o/-a), but by some other feature, and can have different roots. The majority of these pairs are lexical gender items in Spanish, while others are only lexical gender items in Tagalog.

abád

'abbot'

aktór

'actor'

artsiduke

'archduke'

barón, baronés

'baron'

biskonde

'viscount'

duke

'duke'

emperadór

'emperor'

hapón

'Japanese'

kabalyero

'gentleman'

kantór

'singer'

kompadre, kumpadre, kumpare

'buddy, mate'

konde

'count'

padrastro, padrasto

'stepfather'

papá

'father'

prínsipé

'prince'

abadesa

'abbess'

aktrís

'actress'

artsidukesa

'archduchess'

baronesa

'baroness'

biskondesa

'viscountess'

dukesa

'duchess'

emperatrís

'empress'

haponesa

'Japanese'

dama

'lady'

kantóra, kantatris

'singer'

komadre, kumadre, kumare

'buddy, mate'

kondesa

'countess'

madrasta

'stepmother'

mamá

'mother'

prinsesa

'princess'



CITE THIS PAGE

APA 7

Blazado, C. (2022). Spanish loanwords in Tagalog. Gender in Language Project. www.genderinlanguage.com/tagalog/loanwords



REFERENCES

Oficina de Educación Iberoamericana. (1972). Hispanismos en el tagalo. Madrid: Imnasa.