GENDER IN LANGUAGE PROJECT


INCLUSIVE PARTIAL GRAMMAR OF PORTUGUESE


by SEBASTIAN CLENDENNING-JIMÉNEZ & ZAPHIEL KIRIKO MlLLER

This grammar identifies all sites of gendered personal reference in Portuguese (i.e. everywhere that the gender of the word aligns with the gender of the referent). We display prescriptive masculine and feminine forms as well as forms in two inclusive linguistic genders (e, i), which you may see by clicking on the selector below. This grammar does not identify the sites of Portuguese grammar that do not have gendered personal references, like the entire verbal system. Sections in gray represent "gray areas" which lack consensus about whether or not they should be transformed. Attestations of these genders are listed in References below. This grammar is a living document that intends to show a nonexhaustive list of examples for each lexical class considered open.

ABOUT THE INCLUSIVE GENDERS

In reviewing attestations of inclusive forms in Portuguese, we have identified two inclusive genders: the e gender and the i gender. The canonical gender morpheme of the e gender is e (IPA: [e]), though the allomorph u (IPA: [u]) appears when inclusive words ending in e would be the same as masculine forms ending in e (e.g. chefe chefu 'chef'). Though this gender contains two allomorphs (e, u), we have chosen to name it the e gender because there are relatively fewer cases of overlap which trigger the allomorph u to surface. The allomorph u is pronounced the same as the canonically masculine gender morpheme o (IPA: [u]), hence why it only surfaces in cases of overlapping forms where the masculine form ends in e. This gender has multiple attested canonical personal pronouns (elu, ilu, ile). In the case of elu, this pronoun surfaces with the u allomorph as the masculine form is ele. Ilu and ile are additional inclusive personal pronouns attested in community grammars featuring the canonical e morpheme in nouns. For this reason, we have integrated these pronouns with the e gender. The i gender as attested is more straightforward, featuring the canonical gender morpheme i and the canonical personal pronoun ili. In cases where the i is duplicated because an i precedes the gender morpheme (producing ii), we have represented these forms with a single i (e.g. varios varis 'various, several'). It is imperative to note that not all inclusive forms listed for this gender have been attested by speakers and are instead a result of extending the existing paradigm of inclusive e in Portuguese.


ABBREVIATIONS

[M.]

MASCULINE

[F.]

FEMININE

[I.]

INCLUSIVE

[N.]

NEUTER

[SG.]

SINGULAR

[PL.]

PLURAL

[INF.]

INFORMAL

[FM.]

FORMAL


PERSONAL PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE

INCLUSIVE


E I

eu

você, tu

ele, ela

nós, a gente

vocês, vós

eles, elas

ele

'he'

eles

'they [PL.]'

ela

'she'

elas

'they [PL.]'

elu, ilu, ile

'they [SG.]'

elus, ilus, iles

'they [PL.]'

In the Portuguese personal pronominal system, two out of the six possible person and number combinations have masculine-feminine gendered distinctions prescriptively. While speakers may avoid gendering others by using the referent's name or referring to them indirectly (e.g. João é uma pessoa simpática. 'João is a kind person.'), gendered distinctions permeate the language. For this reason, speakers have created inclusive personal pronouns.



CONTRACTIONS WITH PERSONAL PRONOUNS



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These contractions are formed by combining the prepositions de 'of/from', em 'in/at/on', and por 'by/for' with personal pronouns.

dele

'of/from him'

deles

'of/from them [M. PL.]'

nele

'in/at/on him'

neles

'in/at/on them [M. PL.]'

pele

'by/for him'

peles

'by/for them [M. PL.]'

dela

'of/from her'

delas

'of/from them [F. PL.]'

nela

'in/at/on her'

nelas

'in/at/on them [F. PL.]'

pela

'by/for her'

pelas

'by/for them [F. PL.]'

delu, dilu, dile

'of/from them [SG.]'

delus, dilus, diles

'of/from them [PL.]'

nelu, nilu, nile

'in/at/on them [SG.]'

nelus, nilus, niles

'in/at/on them [PL.]'

pelu, pilu, pile

'by/for them [SG.]'

pelus, pilus, piles

'by/for them [PL.]'



CANONICAL -O / -A NOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

These paired nouns have distinct masculine and feminine forms which differ only by canonical gender morpheme (o [M.], a [F.]). This morpheme is replaced by an inclusive morpheme, though orthographic changes are necessary when the consonants g and c precede the gender morpheme (e.g. músico músique) to preserve the sound of the word in writing.

amigo

'friend'

músico

'musician'

médico

'doctor'

irmão

'brother'

menino

'boy'

moço

'young man'

filho

'son'

aluno

'student'

adulto

'adult'

carteiro

'mailman'

dançarino

'dancer'

bailarino

'ballet dancer'

amiga

'friend'

música

'musician'

médica

'doctor'

irmã

'sister'

menina

'girl'

moça

'young woman'

filha

'daughter'

aluna

'student'

adulta

'adult'

carteira

'mailwoman'

dançarina

'dancer'

bailarina

'ballet dancer'

amigue

'friend'

músique

'musician'

médique

'doctor'

irmãe

'sibling'

menine

'kid'

moçe, moce

'young person'

filhe

'child'

alune

'student'

adulte

'adult'

carteire

'mail carrier'

dançarine

'dancer'

bailarine

'ballet dancer'



NONCANONICAL NOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

These paired nouns have distinct masculine and feminine forms with noncanonical gender morphology (e.g. e [M.], a [F.]), including cases where the masculine morpheme is null (ø [M.],

a [F.]) In this latter case, morphemes are realized overtly on inclusive forms so that the surface inclusive form is not the same as the masculine.

professor

'professor/teacher'

autor

'author'

pintor

'painter'

governador

'governor'

agricultor

'farmer'

contador

'accountant'

chefe

'boss'

espião

'spy'

lavador

'washer (person who washes)'

engomador

'ironer (person who irons clothes)'

professora

'professor/teacher'

autora

'author'

pintora

'painter'

governadora

'governor'

agricultora

'farmer'

contadora

'accountant'

chefa

'boss'

espiã

'spy'

lavadeira

'washer (person who washes)'

engomadeira

'ironer (person who irons clothes)'

professore

'professor/teacher'

autore

'author'

pintore

'painter'

governadore

'governor'

agricultore

'farmer'

contadore

'accountant'

chefu

'boss'

espie

'spy'

lavade

'washer (person who washes)'

engomade

'ironer (person who irons clothes)'

The feminine form of masculine nouns ending in -or (e.g. engomador 'ironer') is occasionally -eira (engomadeira 'ironer'). Masculine nouns ending in -ão (espião 'spy') result in the feminine form (espiã 'spy').





NOUNS WITH INVARIANT FORMS

THAT CAN BE ANY GENDER



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These nouns have one common form which may be any gender grammatically. The gender of the noun is usually revealed by its dependent elements (e.g. [uma] piloto '[a] pilot'). We do not see a consensus about whether or not to transform these nouns. Some speakers do transform them while others change only the words that must agree with the noun (especially if the noun already features the e morpheme).

estudante

'student'

piloto

'pilot'

atleta

'athlete'

jornalista

'journalist'

artista

'artist'

dentista

'dentist'

linguista

'linguist'

cientista

'scientist'

estudante

'student'

piloto

'pilot'

atleta

'athlete'

jornalista

'journalist'

artista

'artist'

dentista

'dentist'

linguista

'linguist'

cientista

'scientist'

estudante

'student'

pilote

'pilot'

atlete

'athlete'

jornaliste

'journalist'

artiste

'artist'

dentiste

'dentist'

linguiste

'linguist'

cientiste

'scientist'



NOUNS THAT ARE ONLY ONE

GENDER PRESCRIPTIVELY



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These nouns have only one form which is only ever one gender grammatically. Because semantically they refer to people, some speakers transform these nouns, though there is still not yet a consensus on whether or not to do so.

homem

'man/human'


povo

'people'



grupo, pessoal

'group/band/staff'





humanidade

'humanity'


população

'population'

criança(s)

'child(ren)'


pessoa

'person'

juventude

'youth'

família

'family'





criançe(s)

'child(ren)'







LEXICAL GENDER NOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

This category includes nouns with less common gender morphology and noun pairs with forms that are not simply the result of inflectional gender morphology. Some inclusive attestatations have been proposed by speakers, but there is not yet a consensus on how to transform them.

pai

'father'

avô

'grandfather'

genro

'son-in-law'

homem

'man'

ator

'actor'

imperador

'emperor'

rei

'king'

príncipe

'prince'

duque

'duke'

poeta

'poet'

mãe

'mother'

avó

'grandmother'

nora

'daughter-in-law'

mulher

'woman'

atriz

'actress'

imperatriz

'empress'

rainha

'queen'

princesa

'princess'

duquesa

'duchess'

poetisa

'poet'

pae, mei

'parent'










In the case of avô 'grandfather' and avó 'grandmother', the final vowel is phonologically distinct (ô IPA: [o]; ó—IPA: [ɔ]). This difference in vowel quality is represented orthographically by the diacritics above each vowel. Some forms of feminine nouns have fallen out of use and the choice of form depends on the user. For example, poetisa ‘poet’ refers specifically to female poets while the masculine poeta ‘poet’ is often generalized and used to refer to poets of any gender.





CANONICAL -O / -A ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

These paired adjectives have different masculine and feminine forms which differ only by canonical gender morpheme (o [M.], a [F.]). This morpheme is replaced by an inclusive morpheme, though orthographic changes are necessary when the consonants g and c precede the gender morpheme (e.g. cínico cínique) to preserve the sound of the word in writing.

cínico

'cynical'

apático

'apathetic'

brasileiro

'Brazilian'

lindo

'beautiful'

ambicioso

'ambitious'

esperto

'expert'

famoso

'famous'

atencioso

'considerate'

generoso

'generous'

cuidadoso

'careful'

cínica

'cynical'

apática

'apathetic'

brasileira

'Brazilian'

linda

'beautiful'

ambiciosa

'ambicious'

esperta

'expert'

famosa

'famous'

atenciosa

'considerate'

generosa

'generous'

cuidadosa

'careful'

cínique

'cynical'

apátique

'apathetic'

brasileire

'Brazilian'

linde

'beautiful'

ambiciose

'ambicious'

esperte

'expert'

famose

'famous'

atenciose

'considerate'

generose

'generous'

cuidadose

'careful'



NONCANONICAL ADJECTIVES WITH DIFFERENT MASCULINE AND FEMININE FORMS




MASCULINE




FEMININE




INCLUSIVE—E

These paired adjectives have different masculine and feminine forms which have noncanonical morphology (-or, -om, -au [M.], -ora, -oa, -á [F.]), including cases where the masculine morpheme is null (ø [M.], a [F.]). In this latter case, inclusive forms will feature a gender morpheme so that the inclusive form is not the same as the masculine. We haven't found any inclusive attestations for bom/boa and mau/má, hence the lack of forms in these cells.

encantador

'charming'

falador

'talkative'

ameaçador

'threatening'

bom

'good'

mau

'bad'

encantadora

'charming'

faladora

'talkative'

ameaçadora

'threatening'

boa

'good'

'bad'

encantadore

'charming'

faladore

'talkative'

ameaçadore

'threatening'







INVARIANT ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

These adjectives have only one form which is may be assigned multiple genders prescriptively (Ele/Ela é interessante. 'He/she is interesting.'). These may end in a vowel or a consonant, but as with other invariant forms, it is unclear whether or not speakers believe they should be transformed. It seems that speakers are more likely to transform forms ending in a (e.g. egoísta egoíste).

interessante

'interesting'

tolerante

'tolerant'

triste

'sad'

egoísta

'selfish'

amigável

'friendly'

prestável

'helpful'

miserável

'miserable'

interessante

'interesting'

tolerante

'tolerant'

triste

'sad'

egoísta

'selfish'

amigável

'friendly'

prestável

'helpful'

miserável

'miserable'

interessante

'interesting'

tolerante

'tolerant'

triste

'sad'

egoíste

'selfish'

amigável

'friendly'

prestável

'helpful'

miserável

'miserable'





DEFINITE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

o os

a as

o, lo

'the [SG.]'

os, los

'the [PL.]'

a, la

'the [SG.]'

as, las

'the [PL.]'

ê, lê

'the [SG.]'

ês, lês

'the [PL.]'

The forms lo(s), la(s), and lê(s) are allomorphs of the forms o(s), a(s), and ê(s). These forms are used following words ending in -r, -s, and -z (e.g. todas as árvores → toda-las árvores) and feature a dash in their orthography, though this is subject to sociolinguistic variation.



CONTRACTIONS WITH

DEFINITE ARTICLES



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These contractions are formed by combining the prepositions a 'to/at', de 'of/from', em 'in/at/on', and por 'by/for' with definite articles. The forms pelu and pelus 'by/for/through the' feature the -u allomorph so that they are distinguished from the contractions pele and peles 'by/for him/them [M.]'. The inclusive forms ê and ês 'to/at the' are represented with a circumflex to differentiate them from the conjunction e 'and'.

ao

'to/at the [SG.]'

aos

'to/at the [PL.]'

do

'of/from the [SG.]'

dos

'of/from the [PL.]'

no

'in/at/on the [SG.]'

nos

'in/at/on the [PL.]'

pelo

'by/for/through the [SG.]'

pelos

'by/for/through the [PL.]'

'to/at the [SG.]'

às

'to/at the [PL.]'

da

'of/from the [SG.]'

das

'of/from the [PL.]'

na

'in/at/on the [SG.]'

nas

'in/at/on the [PL.]'

pela

'by/for/through the [SG.]'

pelas

'by/for/through the [PL.]'

ê

'to/at the [SG.]'

ês

'to/at the [PL.]'

de

'of/from the [SG.]'

des

'of/from the [PL.]'

ne

'in/at/on the [SG.]'

nes

'in/at/on the [PL.]'

pelu

'by/for/through the [SG.]'

pelus

'by/for/through the [PL.]'



INDEFINITE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

um uns

uma umas

um

'a/an/some [SG.]'

uns

'some/a few [PL.]'

uma

'a/an/some [SG.]'

umas

'some/a few [PL.]'

ume

'a/an/some [SG.]'

umes

'some/a few [PL.]'



CONTRACTIONS WITH INDEFINITE ARTICLES



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These contractions are formed by combining the prepositions de 'of/from', em 'in/at/on', and para 'for/to' with the indefinite articles.

dum

'of/from some [SG.]'

duns

'of/from a few [PL.]'

num

'in/at/on some [SG.]'

nuns

'in/at/on a few [PL.]'

prum

'for/to some [SG.]'

pruns

'for/to some [PL.]'

duma

'of/from some [SG.]'

dumas

'of/from a few [PL.]'

numa

'in/at/on some [SG.]'

numas

'in/at/on a few [PL.]'

pruma

'for/to some [SG.]'

prumas

'for/to some [PL.]'

dume

'of/from some [SG.]'

dumes

'of/from a few [PL.]'

nume

'in/at/on some [SG.]'

numes

'in/at/on a few [PL.]'

prume

'for/to some [SG.]'

prumes

'for/to some [PL.]'



DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

A three-way distinction is made for demonstratives in Portuguese when referring to (1) things close to the speaker (este/esta), (2) things not close to the speaker (esse/essa), and (3) things even farther away from the speaker (aquele/aquela). It could also be the case that este/esta is used for things close to the speaker, esse/essa is used for things close to the addressee, and aquele/aquela is used for things far from both the speaker and the addressee. This distinction is subject to sociolinguistic variation.

este

'this (near to the speaker)'

estes

'these (near to the speaker)'

esse

'that (close to the addressee)'

esses

'those (close to the addressee)'

aquele

'that (over there)'


aqueles

'those (over there)'

esta

'this (near to the speaker)'

estas

'these (near to the speaker)'

essa

'that (close to the addressee)'

essas

'those (close to the addressee)'

aquela

'that (over there)'


aquelas

'those (over there)'

estu

'this (near to the speaker)'

estus

'these (near to the speaker)'

essu

'that (close to the addressee)'

essus

'those (close to the addressee)'

aquelu, aquilu, aquile

'that (over there)'

aquelus, aquilus, aquiles

'those (over there)'

The neuter demonstrative articles isto(s), isso(s), and aquilo(s) survive from the Latin neuter gender. While these are considered grammatically neuter in Portuguese, they retain canonical masculine morphology. Demonstrative articles and demonstrative pronouns in Portuguese are identical in form.



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

A three-way distinction is made for demonstratives in Portuguese when referring to (1) things close to the speaker (este/esta), (2) things not close to the speaker (esse/essa), and (3) things even farther away from the speaker (aquele/aquela). It could also be the case that este/esta is used for things close to the speaker, esse/essa is used for things close to the addressee, and aquele/aquela is used for things far from both the speaker and the addressee. This distinction is subject to sociolinguistic variation.

este

'this, this one (near to the speaker)'

estes

'these, these ones (near to the speaker)'

esse

'that, that one (close to the addressee)'

esses

'those, those ones (close to the addressee)'

aquele

'that, that one (over there)'


aqueles

'those, those ones (over there)'

esta

'this, this one (near to the speaker)'

estas

'these, these ones (near to the speaker)'

essa

'that, that one (close to the addressee)'

essas

'those, those ones (close to the addressee)'

aquela

'that, that one (over there)'


aquelas

'those, those ones (over there)'

estu

'this, this one (near to the speaker)'

estus

'these, these ones (near to the speaker)'

essu

'that, that one (close to the addressee)'

essus

'those, those ones (close to the addressee)'

aquelu, aquilu, aquile

'that, that one (over there)'

aquelus, aquilus, aquiles

'those, those ones (over there)'

The neuter demonstrative pronouns isto(s), isso(s), and aquilo(s) survive from the Latin neuter gender. While these are considered grammatically neuter in Portuguese, they retain canonical masculine morphology. Demonstrative articles and demonstrative pronouns in Portuguese are identical in form.



CONTRACTIONS WITH DEMONSTRATIVES



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These contractions are formed by combining the prepositions de 'of/from', em 'in/at/on', and a 'to/at' with demonstrative articles and pronouns. The same distinction that is described in the previous section applies.

deste

'of/from this (one) [close to the speaker]'

destes

'of/from these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

desse

'of/from that (one) [close to the addressee]'

desses

'of/from those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

daquele

'of/from that (one) [over there]'



daqueles

'of/from those (ones) [over there]'



neste

'in/at/on this (one) [close to the speaker]'

nestes

'in/at/on these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

nesse

'in/at/on that (one) [close to the addressee]'

nesses

'in/at/on those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

naquele

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'



naqueles

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'



àquele

'to/at that (one)

[over there]'




àqueles

'to/at those (ones)

[over there]'

desta

'of/from this (one) [close to the speaker]'

destas

'of/from these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

dessa

'of/from that (one) [close to the addressee]'

dessas

'of/from those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

daquela

'of/from that (one) [over there]'



daquelas

'of/from those (ones) [over there]'



nesta

'in/at/on this (one) [close to the speaker]'

nestas

'in/at/on these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

nessa

'in/at/on that (one) [close to the addressee]'

nessas

'in/at/on those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

naquela

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'



naquelas

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'



àquela

'to/at that (one)

[over there]'




àquelas

'to/at those (ones)

[over there]'

destu

'of/from this (one) [close to the speaker]'

destus

'of/from these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

dessu

'of/from that (one) [close to the addressee]'

dessus

'of/from those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

daquelu, daquilu, daquile

'of/from that (one) [over there]'

daquelus, daquilus, daquiles

'of/from those (ones) [over there]'

nestu

'in/at/on this (one) [close to the speaker]'

nestus

'in/at/on these (ones) [close to the speaker]'

nessu

'in/at/on that (one) [close to the addressee]'

nessus

'in/at/on those (ones) [close to the addressee]'

naquelu, naquilu, naquile

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'

naquelus, naquilus, naquiles

'in/at/on that (one) [over there]'

àquelu, àquilu, àquile

'to/at that (one)

[over there]'

àquelus, àquilus, àquiles

'to/at those (ones)

[over there]'



DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

me nos

te, você vocês

o, a os, as

o, lo, no

'it, him'

os, los, nos

'them [PL.]'

a, la, na

'it, her'

as, las, nas

'them [PL.]'

ê, lê, nê

'it, them [SG.]'

ês, lês, nês

'them [PL.]'

The forms lo(s), la(s), and lê(s) are allomorphs of the forms o(s), a(s), and ê(s). They are used following an infinitive verb (e.g. amar + -a ama-la 'to love her') and feature a dash in their orthography, though this is subject to sociolinguistic variation in Brazil. If the verb ends in a nasal (e.g. chamaram 'to call'), the allomorphs no(s), na(s), and nê(s) are used instead.



POSSESSIVE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

(o) meu (o) nosso

(o) teu, (o) seu (o) teu, (o) seu

(o) seu, (o) dele (o) seu

(o) meu

'my [SG.]'


(os) meus

'my [PL.]'


(o) teu

'your [SG. INF.]'

(os) teus

'your [PL. INF.]'


(o) seu

'your [SG. FM.]'

'their [SG. INF.]'

(os) seus

'your [PL. FM.]'

'their [PL. INF.]'


(o) dele

'his [SG.]'



(os) deles

'his [PL.]'



(o) nosso

'our [SG.]'

(os) nossos

'our [PL.]'


(a) minha

'my [SG.]'


(as) minhas

'my [PL.]'


(a) tua

'your [SG. INF.]'

(as) tuas

'your [PL. INF.]'


(a) sua

'your [SG. FM.]'

'their [SG. INF.]'

(as) suas

'your [PL. FM.]'

'their [PL. INF.]'


(a) dela

'her [SG.]'



(as) delas

'her [PL.]'



(a) nossa

'our [SG.]'

(as) nossas

'our [PL.]'

(ê) mi,

(ê) minhe

'my [SG.]'

(ês) mis,

(ês) minhes

'my [PL.]'

(ê) tu, (ê) tue

'your [SG. INF.]'

(ês) tus,

(ês) tues

'your [PL. INF.]'

(ê) su, (ê) sue

'your [SG. FM.]'

'their [SG. INF.]'

(ês) sus,

(ês) sues

'your [PL. FM.]'

'their [PL. INF.]'

(ê) delu,

(ê) dilu,

(ê) dile

'their [SG.]'

(ês) delus,

(ês) dilus,

(ês) diles

'their [PL.]'

(ê) nosse

'our [SG.]'

(ês) nosses

'our [PL.]'


Possessive articles agree in gender and number with the possessed noun (o meu cachorro 'my dog', a minha saia 'my skirt'). If the possessed noun refers to a person, then the article agrees with the gender of the referent (nosso filho 'our son', nossa filha 'our daughter'). The forms dele, dela, and delu/dilu/dile are contractions with personal pronouns that fulfill the function of possessives and reflect the gender of the possessor (o pássaro delu 'their bird', a rosa delu 'their rose').

A formality contrast between the forms teu(s)/tua(s) and seu(s)/sua(s) is subject to sociolinguistic variation in some parts of Brazil. The forms teu(s)/tua(s)/tu(s)/tue(s) are considered both informal second person singular and plural referents in Portugal and northern Brazil. In southeast Brazil, teu(s)/tua(s) has fallen out of use and seu(s)/sua(s) is used for the second person, both formal and informal. Seu(s)/sua(s) is considered second person formal and third person singular, both formal and informal, in Portugal and northern Brazil.

In colloquial speech across all dialects of Portuguese, the use of seu/sua in the third person can lead to ambiguity as these forms are also used in the second person (e.g. Marcos trouxe o seu livro 'Marcos brought your/his book'). To help resolve this ambiguity, speakers use dele/dela instead (Marcos trouxe o livro dele 'Marcos brought his book').

Possessive articles are typically preceded by the definite article in Portugal, while in Brazil at times they are not.

The inclusive forms of the definite articles ê and ês are represented with a circumflex to differentiate them from the existing conjunction e 'and'.



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

meu

teu, seu

seu, dele

nosso

teu, seu

seu

meu

'my/mine [SG.]'

meus

'my/mine [PL.]'

teu

'your/yours [SG. INF.]'

teus

'your/yours [PL. INF.]'

seu

'your/yours [SG. FM.]'

'their/theirs [SG. INF.]'

seus

'your/yours [PL. FM.]'

'their/theirs [PL. INF.]'

dele

'his [SG.]'

deles

'his [PL.]'


nosso

'our/ours [SG.]'

nossos

'our/ours [PL.]'

minha

'my/mine [SG.]'

minhas

'my/mine [PL.]'

tua

'your/yours [SG. INF.]'

tuas

'your/yours [PL. INF.]'

sua

'your/yours [SG. FM.]'

'their/theirs [SG. INF.]'

suas

'your/yours [PL. FM.]'

'their/theirs [PL. INF.]'

dela

'her/hers [SG.]'

delas

'her/hers [PL.]'


nossa

'our/ours [SG.]'

nossas

'our/ours [PL.]'

mi, minhe

'my/mine [SG.]'

mis, minhes

'my/mine [PL.]'

tu, tue

'your/yours [SG. INF.]'

tus, tues

'your/yours [PL. INF.]'

su, sue

'your/yours [SG. FM.]'

'their/theirs [SG. INF.]'

sus, sues

'your/yours [PL. FM.]'

'their/theirs [PL. INF.]'

delu, dilu, dile

'their/theirs [SG.]'

delus, dilus, diles

'their/theirs [PL.]'

nosse

'our/ours [SG.]'

nosses

'our/ours [PL.]'

The function of possessive adjectives is identical to the function of possessive articles described above.



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

o meu o nosso

o teu, o seu o teu, o seu

o seu, o dele o seu


o meu

'mine [SG.]'

os meus

'mine [PL.]'


o teu

'yours [SG. INF.]'

os teus

'yours [PL. INF.]'

o seu

'yours [SG. FM.]'

'theirs [SG. INF.]'

os seus

'yours [PL. FM.]'

'theirs [PL. INF.]'

o dele

'his [SG.]'


os deles

'his [PL.]'



o nosso

'ours [SG.]'

os nossos

'ours [PL.]'

a minha

'mine [SG.]'

as minhas

'mine [PL.]'


a tua

'yours [SG. INF.]'

as tuas

'yours [PL. INF.]'

a sua

'yours [SG. FM.]'

'theirs [SG. INF.]'

as suas

'yours [PL. FM.]'

'theirs [PL. INF.]'

a dela

'hers [SG.]'


as delas

'hers [PL.]'



a nossa

'ours [SG.]'

as nossas

'ours [PL.]'

ê mi, ê minhe

'mine [SG.]'

ês mis,

ês minhes

'mine [PL.]'

ê tu, ê tue

'yours [SG. INF.]'

ês tus, ês tues

'your [PL. INF.]'

ê su, ê sue

'yours [SG. FM.]'

'theirs [SG. INF.]'

ês sus, ês sues

'yours [PL. FM.]'

'theirs [PL. INF.]'

ê delu, ê dilu, ê dile

'theirs [SG.]'

ês delus,

ês dilus,

ês diles

'theirs [PL.]'

nosse

'ours [SG.]'

ês nosses

'ours [PL.]'

The function of possessive pronouns is identical to the function of possessive articles described above. Possessive pronouns always require a definite article.



RELATIVE PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

These relative pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun that is being referred to. This referent can be a person (e.g. Temos duas netas as quais amamos. 'We have two granddaughters whom we love').

o qual

'which/whom [SG.]'

os quais

'which/whom [PL.]'

cujo

'whose [SG.]'

cujos

'whose [PL.]'

a qual

'which/whom [SG.]'

as quais

'which/whom [PL.]'

cuja

'whose [SG.]'

cujas

'whose [PL.]'

e qual

'which/whom [SG.]'

es quais

'which/whom [PL.]'

cuje

'whose [SG.]'

cujes

'whose [PL.]'



QUANTIFIERS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—E

todo

'all, every [SG.]'

todos

'all [PL.]'

muito

'a lot (of), much [SG.]'

muitos

'a lot of, many [PL.]'

pouco

'little [SG.]'

poucos

'few [PL.]'

outro

'other/another [SG.]'

outros

'other [PL.]'

certo

'certain [SG.]'

certos

'certain [PL.]'

algum

'some/any [SG.]'

alguns

'some/any [PL.]'

nenhum

'no/none [SG.]'

nenhuns

'no/none [PL.]'

tanto

'as much, so much, a lot of [SG.]'

tantos

'as many, so many, a lot of [PL.]'

demasiado

'too much [SG.]'

demasiados

'too many [PL.]'

ambos

'both'

vários

'various/several'

diversos

'various/different'

toda

'all, every [SG.]'

todas

'all [PL.]'

muita

'a lot (of), much [SG.]'

muitas

'a lot of, many [PL.]'

pouca

'little [SG.]'

poucas

'few [PL.]'

outra

'other/another [SG.]'

outras

'other [PL.]'

certa

'certain [SG.]'

certas

'certain [PL.]'

alguma

'some/any [SG.]'

algumas

'some/any [PL.]'

nenhuma

'no/none [SG.]'

nenhumas

'no/none [PL.]'

tanta

'as much, so much, a lot of [SG.]'

tantas

'as many, so many, a lot of [PL.]'

demasiada

'too much [SG.]'

demasiadas

'too many [PL.]'

ambas

'both'

várias

'various/several'

diversas

'various/different'

tode

'all, every [SG.]'

todes

'all [PL.]'

muite

'a lot (of), much [SG.]'

muites

'a lot of, many [PL.]'

pouque

'little [SG.]'

pouques

'few [PL.]'

outre

'other/another [SG.]'

outres

'other [PL.]'

certe

'certain [SG.]'

certes

'certain [PL.]'

algume

'some/any [SG.]'

algumes

'some/any [PL.]'

nenhume

'no/none [SG.]'

nenhumes

'no/none [PL.]'

tante

'as much, so much, a lot of [SG.]'

tantes

'as many, so many, a lot of [PL.]'

demasiade

'too much [SG.]'

demasiades

'too many [PL.]'

ambes

'both'

váries

'various/several'

diverses

'various/different'



CONTRACTIONS WITH QUANTIFIERS



MASCULINE



FEMININE



INCLUSIVE—E

These contractions are formed by combining the prepositions de 'of/from' and em 'in/at/on' with quantifiers.

doutro

'of/from another [SG.]'

doutros

'of/from others [PL.]'

noutro

'in/at/on another [SG.]'

noutros

'in/at/on others [PL.]'

dalgum

'of/from someone [SG.]'

dalguns

'of/from some people [PL.]'

nalgum

'in/at/on someone [SG.]'

nalguns

'in/at/on some people [PL.]'

doutra

'of/from another [SG.]'

doutras

'of/from others [PL.]'

noutra

'in/at/on another [SG.]'

noutras

'in/at/on others [PL.]'

dalguma

'of/from someone [SG.]'

dalgumas

'of/from some people [PL.]'

nalguma

'in/at/on someone [SG.]'

nalgumas

'in/at/on some people [PL.]'

doutre

'of/from another [SG.]'

doutres

'of/from others [PL.]'

noutre

'in/at/on another [SG.]'

noutres

'in/at/on others [PL.]'

dalgume

'of/from someone [SG.]'

dalgumes

'of/from some people [PL.]'

nalgume

'in/at/on someone [SG.]'