GENDER IN LANGUAGE PROJECT


INCLUSIVE PARTIAL GRAMMAR OF CATALAN


by JESUS DUARTE

This grammar identifies all sites of gendered personal reference in Catalan (i.e. everywhere that linguistic gender aligns with the social gender of who is being referred to). We display the prescriptive masculine and feminine forms as well as forms in several inclusive linguistic genders (e.g. -i gender, -x gender), which you may see by clicking on the selector below. It does not identify the sites of Catalan grammar that do not have gendered personal references, like the entire verbal system. Sections in gray represent "gray areas" which lack consensus about whether or not they should be transformed. Attestations of these genders are listed in References below. This grammar is a living document that intends to show a nonexhaustive set of examples for each lexical class considered open.


ABBREVIATIONS

[M.]

MASCULINE

[F.]

FEMININE

[I.]

INCLUSIVE

[SG.]

SINGULAR

[PL.]

PLURAL


PERSONAL PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE

INCLUSIVE


I X

jo

tu

ell, ella

nosaltres

vosaltres

ells, elles

ell

'he'

ells

'they [PL.]'

ella

'she'

elles

'they [PL.]'

elli

'they [SG.]'

ellis

'they [PL.]'

In the Catalan personal pronoun system, two of the six possible person and number combinations have masculine-feminine gendered distinctions prescriptively. While speakers may avoid gendering others by using their name, omitting a pronoun, or referring to them indirectly (e.g. Jaime és una persona simpàtica 'Jaime is a kind person'), gendered distinctions permeate the language.



CANONICAL -Ø / -A NOUNS

WHICH REFER TO PEOPLE


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These paired nouns have different masculine and feminine forms which differ only by canonical gender morpheme ( [M.], -a [F.]). This morpheme is replaced by an inclusive morpheme, though orthographic changes may be necessary with the -i morpheme to preserve the sound of the word in writing (e.g. amic amigui).

amic

'friend'

noi

'boy'

xicot

'boyfriend'

doctor

'doctor'

bomber

'firefighter'

fill

'son'

amiga

'friend'

noia

'girl'

xicota

'girlfriend'

doctora

'doctor'

bombera

'firefighter'

filla

'daughter'

amigui

'friend'

noi

'kid'

xicoti

'partner'

doctori

'doctor'

bomberi

'firefighter'

filli

'child'



NONCANONICAL NOUNS

WHICH REFER TO PEOPLE


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These paired nouns have different masculine and feminine forms which have noncanonical gender morphology, including:

-e [M.], -a [F.]

[M.], -ana [F.]

[M.], -ina [F.]

mestre

'teacher'

alumne

'student'

germà

'brother'

cosí

'cousin'

padrí

'godfather'

mestra

'teacher'

alumna

'student'

germana

'sister'

cosina

'cousin'

padrina

'godmother'

mestri

'teacher'

alumni

'student'

germani

'sibling'

cosini

'cousin'

padrini

'godparent'





INVARIANT NOUNS WHICH REFER TO PEOPLE AND CAN BE MASCULINE OR FEMININE GRAMMATICALLY




MASCULINE




FEMININE




INCLUSIVE—I

These nouns have only one common form which may be any gender grammatically, usually revealed by the noun's dependent elements (e.g. [un/una] cantant). There is still not yet a consensus on whether or not to transform these nouns. Some speakers do transform them while others transform only the words that must agree with the noun. Certain orthographic changes are necessary with the -i morpheme to preserve the sound of the word in writing (e.g. jerarca jerarqui).

jerarca

'hierarch'

cantant

'singer'

dentista

'dentist'

jove

'young man'

jerarca

'hierarch'

cantant

'singer'

dentista

'dentist'

jove

'young woman'

jerarqui

'hierarch'

cantanti

'singer'

dentisti

'dentist'

jovi

'young person'



INVARIANT NOUNS WHICH REFER TO PEOPLE BUT ARE ONLY ONE GENDER PRESCRIPTIVELY




MASCULINE




FEMININE




INCLUSIVE—I

These nouns have only one form which is only ever one gender grammatically. Because semantically they refer to people, some speakers transform these nouns, though there is still not yet a consensus on whether or not to do so.

-


grup

'group'

-


membre

'member'

-


persona

'person'

-


gent

'people'

-


família

'family'

personi

'person'

grupi

'group'

genti

'people'

membri

'member'

famíli

'family'



LEXICAL GENDER NOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These nouns do not differ minimally by gender morpheme, but by some other feature(s). We have not seen any inclusive forms of these nouns attested.

home

'man'

marit

'husband'

oncle

'uncle'

gendre

'son-in-law'

pare

'father'

dona

'woman'

muller, esposa

'wife'

tia

'aunt'

nora, jove

'daughter-in-law'

mare

'mother'










CANONICAL -Ø / -A ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These paired adjectives have different masculine and feminine forms which differ only by canonical gender morpheme (-ø [M.], -a [F.]). This morpheme is replaced by an inclusive morpheme, though orthographic changes may be necessary with certain vocalic morphemes (e.g. simpatic simpàtiqui).

simpatic

'kind'

fred

'cold'

baix

'short'

fort

'strong'

trist

'sad'

dolç

'sweet'

simpàtica

'kind'

freda

'cold'

baixa

'short'

forta

'strong'

trista

'sad'

dolça

'sweet'

simpàtiqui

'kind'

fredi

'cold'

baixi

'short'

forti

'strong'

tristi

'sad'

dolçi

'sweet'



NONCANONICAL ADJECTIVES WITH DIFFERENT MASCULINE AND FEMININE FORMS




MASCULINE




FEMININE




INCLUSIVE—I

These paired adjectives have different masculine and feminine forms with noncanonical morphology, including:

-eu [M.], -ea [F.]

-iu [M.], -iva [F.]

-au [M.], -ava [F.]

europeu

'European'

efectiu

'effective'

viu

'alive'

blau

'blue'

europea

'European'

efectiva

'effective'

viva

'alive'

blava

'blue'

europei

'European'

efectivi

'effective'

vivi

'alive'

blavi

'blue'





INVARIANT ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These adjectives have only one form which is may be assigned multiple genders prescriptively (e.g. Ell/Ella és feliç 'He/she is happy'). These may end in a vowel or a consonant, but as they are invariant forms, it is unclear whether or not speakers believe they should be transformed.

hostil

'hostile'

regular

'regular'

elegant

'elegant'

amable

'kind'

feliç

'happy'

hostil

'hostile'

regular

'regular'

elegant

'elegant'

amable

'kind'

feliç

'happy'

hostili

'hostile'

regulari

'regular'

eleganti

'elegant'

amabli

'kind'

feliçi

'happy'





DEFINITE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

el, l'

la, l'

el, l'

els

la, l'

les

li, l'

lis

While all singular definite articles that come before a noun beginning in a vowel result l', we have not seen any inclusive attestations of the form l'.



INDEFINITE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

un


una

un

uns

una

unes

uni

unis



POSSESSIVE ARTICLES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

mon

ton

son

nostre

vostre

llur

mon

mos

ton

tos

son

sos

nostre

nostres

vostre

vostres

ma

mes

ta

tes

sa

sas

nostra

nostres

vostra

vostres

mi

mis

ti

tis

si

sis

nostri

nostris

vostri

vostris

Possessive articles agree in gender and number with a person/people or thing(s) being possessed, as opposed to the gender and number of the possessor (e.g. la meva mare 'my mother' vs. el meu pare 'my father').



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

el meu

el teu

el seu

el nostre

el vostre

el seu

el meu

els meus

el teu

els teus

el seu

els seus

el nostre

els nostres

el vostre

els vostres

el seu

els seus

la meva

les meves

la teva

les teves

la seva

les seves

la nostra

les nostres

la vostra

les vostres

la seva

les seves

li mevi

lis mevis

li tevi

lis tevis

li sevi

lis sevis

li nostri

lis nostris

li vostri

lis vostris

li sevi

lis sevis

Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with a person/people or thing(s) being possessed, as opposed to the gender and number of the possessor (e.g. la meva [mare] 'mine, my mother]' vs. el meu [pare] 'mine, my father').



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

meu

teu

seu

nostre

vostre

seu

meu(s)

teu(s)

seu(s)

nostre(s)

vostre(s)

seu(s)

meva(-es)

teva(-es)

seva(-es)

nostra(-es)

vostra(-es)

seva(-es)

mevi(s)

tevi(s)

sevi(s)

nostri(s)

vostri(s)

sevi(s)

Possessive adjectives agree in gender and number with a person/people or thing(s) being possessed, as opposed to the gender and number of the possessor (e.g. El telèfon és meu 'The telephone is mine').



DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES AND PRONOUNS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

Demonstrative article and pronoun forms are identical in Catalan.

aquest

aquests

aquell

aquells

aquesta

aquestes

aquella

aquelles

aquesti

aquestis

aquelli

aquellis



DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS

BEFORE THE VERB


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

em/m'

et/t'

el/l', la/l'

ens

us

els, les

el, l'

els

la, l'

les

li

lis

AFTER THE VERB

-me/'m

-te/'t

-lo/'l, -la

-nos/'ns

-vos/-us

-los/'ls, -les

-lo, 'l

-los, 'ls

-la

-les

-li

-lis



INTERROGATIVES


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

The interrogatives quin and quant must agree in gender and number with the noun to which it refers.

quin

quins

quant

quants

quina

quines

quanta

quantes

quini

quinis

quanti

quantis



QUANTIFIERS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

These items share the same function as other determiners and must agree in gender with the noun they describe.


cert

certs

poc

pocs

molt

molts

altre

altres

mant

certa

certes

poca

poques

molta

moltes

altra

altres

manta

certi

certis

poqui

poquis

molti

moltis

altri

altris

manti



HONORIFICS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

Inclusive honorific forms have been minimally attested.

Sr.

senyor

'mister (Mr.)'

Dr.

doctor

'doctor'

Sra.

senyora

'missus (Mrs.)'

Dra.

doctora

'doctor'

Sri.

senyori

'Mx.'

Dri.

doctori

'doctor'



CARDINAL NUMBERS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

When certain numbers are followed by a noun, they must agree with the noun's gender. This applies only to numbers ending in the number 1 or the number 2 (with the exception of 11 and 12). For example, numbers like 21, 72, 141, etc.

1

u, un

2

dos

32

trenta-dos

121

cent vint-i-un

1

una

2

dues

32

trenta-dues

121

cent vint-iuna

1

uni

2

duis

32

trenta-duis

121

cent vint-i-uni



ORDINAL NUMBERS


MASCULINE


FEMININE


INCLUSIVE—I

All ordinal numbers with or without a following noun are inflected for gender and number.

1r

primer

primers

2n

segon

segons

10è

desè

desens

1a

primera

primeres

2a

segona

segonas

10a

desena

desenes

1i

primeri

primeris

2i

segoni

segonis

10i

deseni

desenis



CITE THIS PAGE

APA 7

Duarte, J. (2022). Inclusive partial grammar of Catalan. Gender in Language Project. www.genderinlanguage.com/catalan/grammar



REFERENCES

Our grammar is based on the following sources:


Fabra, P. (1956). Gramàtica catalana. Editorial Teide.

Forteza i Cortès, T. (2008). Gramática de la lengua catalana, Vol. I. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, S.A.

Hualde, J. I. (1992). Catalan. Routledge.

Pers i Ramona, M. (1847). Gramática catalana-castellana. Imprenta de A. Berdegur.


With supplemental information and attestations of inclusive forms from the following sources:


Herrero i Goméz, P. (2021). Guia de llenguatge inclusiu en el tractament de persones amb discapacitat. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura. https://llengua.gencat.cat/web/.content/documents/publicacions/publicacions_en_linia/arxius/guia-llenguatge-inclusiu.pdf

Heura Marçal, F. K., & Nogués, M. (2011). Guia per a l’ús no sexista del llenguatge a la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Servei de Llengües i Observatori per a la Igualtat. https://www.uab.cat/doc/llenguatge

Olid, B. (2018). Amb ‘i’ d’inclusiva. Jornada. http://catalallengua.blogspot.com/2018/08/amb-i-dinclusiva.html?m=1

Fajardo Martín, C. (2021). Ells, elles, ellis: s’acabarà imposant el llenguatge no binari? Ara. https://www.ara.cat/cultura/ellis-llenguatge-no-binari-catala-inclusiu_130_3113734.html

Valenzuela Sanz, A., Alonso Vinués, C., & Ordóñez Castellnou, M. (2021). Guia pràctica de lleguatge inclusiu. Chrysallis: Asociación de familias de menores trans. https://chrysallis.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/GUIA-PRACTICA-LLENGUATGE-INCLUSIU-CATALA.pdf